Great metallocarborane
People from ancient times learned to handle the metal. Somewhat later appeared the products of welded metal parts. In ancient Russia metal construction could be grating, fencing and other small…

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It is the oldest city in France
It is possible to call Him the oldest city in all of France – this is an exaggeration, but it preserved most of the buildings extant from the times of…

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Walk through the Gothic quarter in Barcelona

In Barcelona’s Gothic quarter is actually great to just get lost, going from one narrow streets to another, to wander among the chaotic urban planning, to feel the atmosphere and spirit of the middle ages. My first acquaintance with the Gothic quarter was exactly that – we just wandered and swerved through the streets of the old part of town, but then to our surprise it turned out that we wandered in all corners of the quarter, it was a shame. A year later, I wandered through the Gothic quarter with the card, and was satisfied because he saw all the wealth the area. Map of the Gothic quarter in Barcelona was very convenient, in addition to the medieval picture, as well as a handy diagram of the quarter, it offers and route description of the historical places, best option is not found! Offer to Your attention a medieval picture + scheme quarter.

And now, some history from Wikipedia: actually the name of the quarter received because of its medieval buildings. The quarter begins from Plaza Catalunya, La Rambla stretches from Avenue of via Lautan. Typical of medieval towns chaotic layout is preserved in the Gothic quarter. The quarter consists of narrow winding streets, many of which are closed to travel. Most of the buildings date from the XIV—XV centuries, however, sohranilis Roman monuments. The quarter was inhabited during the reign of Octavian August. Continue reading

The soil pressure on underground structures

Prior to production and to the construction of underground structures soil in an unlimited array is in a state of natural or geostatic equilibrium under the action of its own weight. In this case, the depth Z in the soil (Fig. 1), the following compressive stresses (pressure):

vertical

horizontal

where is the average bulk weight of overlying soils; – the coefficient of lateral earth pressure under conditions of natural occurrence.

The open or underground excavation changes the equilibrium conditions of the soil and leads to the emergence of deformation and redistribution of stresses.

Earth pressure on underground structures is different than the pressure in the intact rock mass at the same depth, as: Continue reading

Expedition to the Ustyurt plateau

This was the first trip taken by the author. The group in addition to the author, while the fourth-year student of geological faculty of Moscow state pedagogical University, was already a well-known traveller in South America, Anatoliy Khizhnyak, mountaineer, conqueror of Dombai Alexander Polyakov, inquisitive student Alex Avilov and erudite biologist Dmitry Usov. We were all ready for the most risky adventures. Decorated with our male friends the girl Tatyana, the employee of the Main Botanical garden of RAS. Learning about the possibility to collect seeds of rare plants on an isolated plateau, brave girl-nerd without hesitation joined our team and passed all three weeks of hard marching.

The shed on the plateau literally

We went in early April when in those places still blowing cold winds and night-time temperatures drop below zero, so we stocked up on warm clothes, which is very useful.

formed once at the bottom of the sea Continue reading