Ancient underground structures
Trench with the help of special equipment: excavators, various kinds of things for tractors; over short distances using manual force; trenchless technology for laying in horizontal drilling (abbr. HDD); collector.…

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Spain. Tourism, resorts and sights in Spain
Spain is one of the favorite and desirable places for travelers and tourists . This amazing country is striking for its Sunny beaches and cities with beautiful historic architecture. Not…

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Churches and Temples of Ancient Prague

The St. Vitus Cathedral. The dominant feature of Prague Castle is undoubtedly the Cathedral of St. Vitus.

Were held in the Cathedral of the coronation of Bohemian kings, some of them are buried here, so that the Cathedral for the residents of Prague – a place sacred. In the Cathedral you can enter through the bronze doors of the Western façade. On the doors depict scenes from the history of the construction of the temple, as well as episodes of legends about Vaclav and Vojtech.

The Cathedral Of St. Mikuláš.

Created by two prominent Prague architects Christoph and Kilian Ignaz Dienzenhofer. Father, Christoph, was built in the early eighteenth century, the nave and Western facade, and the son 40 years later – the choir and the dome. Completed the construction of the creation of the bell tower (1755) Anselmo Lurago. Especially impressive are the dimensions of the Continue reading

The soil pressure on underground structures

Prior to production and to the construction of underground structures soil in an unlimited array is in a state of natural or geostatic equilibrium under the action of its own weight. In this case, the depth Z in the soil (Fig. 1), the following compressive stresses (pressure):

vertical

horizontal

where is the average bulk weight of overlying soils; – the coefficient of lateral earth pressure under conditions of natural occurrence.

The open or underground excavation changes the equilibrium conditions of the soil and leads to the emergence of deformation and redistribution of stresses.

Earth pressure on underground structures is different than the pressure in the intact rock mass at the same depth, as: Continue reading

Gothic style

Gothic (from the name of the Germanic tribe is ready) style (1150-1500) is represented in various art forms. But it is most fully manifested in the architecture: One of the highest achievements of the Gothic style — the Gothic cathedrals. Powerful columns crowned with pointed arches, huge Windows with colored glass, conical spires of Gothic cathedrals give ease. The building always looks tall and seems even taller.

The exterior is decorated with sculptures, a huge number of columns, which create the impression of lightness and at the same time give the building the necessary strength. The lack of smooth walls especially when compared with buildings of the Romanesque style.

The portal (entrance) to the Cathedral are always decorated with numerous arches, sculptures, turrets, small Windows curly. Smooth walls a little, usually they cut large Windows-sockets. The faces and postures of the figures emphasized realistic, even the folds of the clothes are not frozen, but soft, movable. Continue reading