Prior to production and to the construction of underground structures soil in an unlimited array is in a state of natural or geostatic equilibrium under the action of its own weight. In this case, the depth Z in the soil (Fig. 1), the following compressive stresses (pressure):
where is the average bulk weight of overlying soils; – the coefficient of lateral earth pressure under conditions of natural occurrence.
The open or underground excavation changes the equilibrium conditions of the soil and leads to the emergence of deformation and redistribution of stresses.
Earth pressure on underground structures is different than the pressure in the intact rock mass at the same depth, as: Continue reading
One of the main fortifications of ancient Chernihiv — the moat surrounding castle — discovered by archaeologists during excavations on the corner of Kirponos and the Black Prince in the regional center.
As the correspondent of UKRINFORM research fellow of the Institute of archaeology of NASU, candidate of historical Sciences Elena Chernenko, the existence of this ditch and its approximate location, the archaeologists have known for a long time. He was marked on maps of Chernihiv of the eighteenth century, since then still stood open. In 1803, during the General redevelopment of the city moat was filled in. Then it was razed to the ground and other defense facilities of the Chernihiv fortress: the moat that surrounded Detinet, and the ancient ramparts.
During excavations in the 70-80-ies of the last century archaeologists sometimes encountered on the edge of the ditch of Okolny castle, but to open it to full width and to explore properly managed for the first time. Continue reading
Gothic (from the name of the Germanic tribe is ready) style (1150-1500) is represented in various art forms. But it is most fully manifested in the architecture: One of the highest achievements of the Gothic style — the Gothic cathedrals. Powerful columns crowned with pointed arches, huge Windows with colored glass, conical spires of Gothic cathedrals give ease. The building always looks tall and seems even taller.
The exterior is decorated with sculptures, a huge number of columns, which create the impression of lightness and at the same time give the building the necessary strength. The lack of smooth walls especially when compared with buildings of the Romanesque style.
The portal (entrance) to the Cathedral are always decorated with numerous arches, sculptures, turrets, small Windows curly. Smooth walls a little, usually they cut large Windows-sockets. The faces and postures of the figures emphasized realistic, even the folds of the clothes are not frozen, but soft, movable. Continue reading