Gothic in architecture
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in Europe began the so-called dark ages, during which many barbarian tribes did their Orgy on the remains of the Roman cultural…

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Gothic. Birth and masterpieces (Gothic style)
Gothic style that has become a hallmark of the middle Ages. She was not the only style of the era just past. It is embellished with fantastic lace thread stone…

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The Gothic quarter in Barcelona. What to see?

The Gothic quarter is a district of Barcelona, home to magnificent medieval buildings, there are several major monuments.

The history of the Gothic quarter is rooted in the very ancient times, in the times of Roman rule over Spain. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city, and with it quarter fell into decay, but only in order to blossom in the most glorious days of Catalonia when it was the Kingdom of Aragon. Most of the building dates from the 14th and 15th centuries. The tumultuous events in the history of Catalonia and Spain in the following century and again could affect the safety of local attractions, but fortunately for the tourists. the block stood on their foundations firmly.

The sights of the Gothic quarter

In the neighborhood you can find a huge number of interesting medieval buildings and some buildings are real sights, a magnet for tourists. Continue reading

The megaliths of Donbass – the legacy of ancient Hyperborea?

In the vicinity of the village Donskoye of Volnovakha district – unsightly rocky soil, where the surface of granite rocks. And yet there is a lot of randomly placed rock formations. This lost in Donetsk steppes area, which is the ordinary name of Lososina beam, is part of the ancient Hyperborea. So says a resident of the village don Alexander Shulga is associate Professor in the Department of criminal law disciplines Donetsk law Institute MIA of Ukraine, candidate of legal Sciences, and “part-time” – an Amateur archaeologist, who along with his son Artem proceeded several miles of steppes in search of the homeland of civilization.

While such studies of Amateur archaeologists discovered dozens of artifacts that, in their opinion, indicate that the ancient civilization of Hyperborea was located on the territory of modern Donbass. Continue reading

The soil pressure on underground structures

Prior to production and to the construction of underground structures soil in an unlimited array is in a state of natural or geostatic equilibrium under the action of its own weight. In this case, the depth Z in the soil (Fig. 1), the following compressive stresses (pressure):

vertical

horizontal

where is the average bulk weight of overlying soils; – the coefficient of lateral earth pressure under conditions of natural occurrence.

The open or underground excavation changes the equilibrium conditions of the soil and leads to the emergence of deformation and redistribution of stresses.

Earth pressure on underground structures is different than the pressure in the intact rock mass at the same depth, as: Continue reading

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