Prior to production and to the construction of underground structures soil in an unlimited array is in a state of natural or geostatic equilibrium under the action of its own weight. In this case, the depth Z in the soil (Fig. 1), the following compressive stresses (pressure):
where is the average bulk weight of overlying soils; – the coefficient of lateral earth pressure under conditions of natural occurrence.
The open or underground excavation changes the equilibrium conditions of the soil and leads to the emergence of deformation and redistribution of stresses.
Earth pressure on underground structures is different than the pressure in the intact rock mass at the same depth, as: Continue reading
Mysterious underground tunnels are found on all continents. Experts are convinced that this is a very ancient constructions. But it is still unknown who built and for what purpose.
Moves under the world
Polish researcher Jan Pink argues that system of ancient tunnel covers the entire planet, including the ocean floor. The tunnels seemed to be burned into the surface of the earth. Their walls are hardened melt rocks that look like glass. Modern humanity is similar tunneling technology is unknown.
The oldest tunnels, whose age is estimated at nearly a million years, was found in 1965 by the Argentina ethnologist Juan Moritz. In Ecuador, in the province of Morona-Santiago, his expedition explored and mapped the system of tunnels, mostly rectangular, running at a depth of 230 meters. Their smooth walls seem to be polished. They are ventilation pipes with a diameter of about 70 centimeters. These mysterious underground structures extend for hundreds of kilometers in different directions, including towards the Pacific ocean. Most of them still remain unexplored. Continue reading
This was the first trip taken by the author. The group in addition to the author, while the fourth-year student of geological faculty of Moscow state pedagogical University, was already a well-known traveller in South America, Anatoliy Khizhnyak, mountaineer, conqueror of Dombai Alexander Polyakov, inquisitive student Alex Avilov and erudite biologist Dmitry Usov. We were all ready for the most risky adventures. Decorated with our male friends the girl Tatyana, the employee of the Main Botanical garden of RAS. Learning about the possibility to collect seeds of rare plants on an isolated plateau, brave girl-nerd without hesitation joined our team and passed all three weeks of hard marching.
The shed on the plateau literally
We went in early April when in those places still blowing cold winds and night-time temperatures drop below zero, so we stocked up on warm clothes, which is very useful.
formed once at the bottom of the sea Continue reading