Pamplona
Located 385 km North-East of Madrid and 160 km South-East of Bilbao, the Basque name of Iruna. The capital of Navarra is also world famous for the race of bulls…

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Mysterious underground tunnels
Mysterious underground tunnels are found on all continents. Experts are convinced that this is a very ancient constructions. But it is still unknown who built and for what purpose. Moves…

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Churches and Temples of Ancient Prague

The St. Vitus Cathedral. The dominant feature of Prague Castle is undoubtedly the Cathedral of St. Vitus.

Were held in the Cathedral of the coronation of Bohemian kings, some of them are buried here, so that the Cathedral for the residents of Prague – a place sacred. In the Cathedral you can enter through the bronze doors of the Western façade. On the doors depict scenes from the history of the construction of the temple, as well as episodes of legends about Vaclav and Vojtech.

The Cathedral Of St. Mikuláš.

Created by two prominent Prague architects Christoph and Kilian Ignaz Dienzenhofer. Father, Christoph, was built in the early eighteenth century, the nave and Western facade, and the son 40 years later – the choir and the dome. Completed the construction of the creation of the bell tower (1755) Anselmo Lurago. Especially impressive are the dimensions of the Continue reading

The Gothic quarter in Barcelona. What to see?

The Gothic quarter is a district of Barcelona, home to magnificent medieval buildings, there are several major monuments.

The history of the Gothic quarter is rooted in the very ancient times, in the times of Roman rule over Spain. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city, and with it quarter fell into decay, but only in order to blossom in the most glorious days of Catalonia when it was the Kingdom of Aragon. Most of the building dates from the 14th and 15th centuries. The tumultuous events in the history of Catalonia and Spain in the following century and again could affect the safety of local attractions, but fortunately for the tourists. the block stood on their foundations firmly.

The sights of the Gothic quarter

In the neighborhood you can find a huge number of interesting medieval buildings and some buildings are real sights, a magnet for tourists. Continue reading

The soil pressure on underground structures

Prior to production and to the construction of underground structures soil in an unlimited array is in a state of natural or geostatic equilibrium under the action of its own weight. In this case, the depth Z in the soil (Fig. 1), the following compressive stresses (pressure):

vertical

horizontal

where is the average bulk weight of overlying soils; – the coefficient of lateral earth pressure under conditions of natural occurrence.

The open or underground excavation changes the equilibrium conditions of the soil and leads to the emergence of deformation and redistribution of stresses.

Earth pressure on underground structures is different than the pressure in the intact rock mass at the same depth, as: Continue reading

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Walk through the Gothic quarter in Barcelona
In Barcelona's Gothic quarter is actually great to just get lost, going from one narrow streets to another, to wander among the chaotic urban planning, to feel the atmosphere and…

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Ancient underground structures
Trench with the help of special equipment: excavators, various kinds of things for tractors; over short distances using manual force; trenchless technology for laying in horizontal drilling (abbr. HDD); collector.…

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