Walk through the Gothic quarter in Barcelona
In Barcelona's Gothic quarter is actually great to just get lost, going from one narrow streets to another, to wander among the chaotic urban planning, to feel the atmosphere and…

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Kitaevo is one of the most beautiful and mysterious places in Kiev
Above the entrance to the caves built a tiny little chapel. Go to them on weekdays from 10.00 till 15.00 on weekends and religious holidays from 12.00 to 15.00. Visitors…

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Pyramid lake Rock

There is no doubt that the Egyptian pyramids is the most famous. But they are not the most ancient structures of pyramidal form. In the U.S. state of Wisconsin there is a pyramid, whose age, presumably, 12 thousand years. It turns out that it was built during the last ice age. And made it a very highly advanced civilization…

Rock lake is located 20 miles East of Madison (Wisconsin). Its length is eight and the width is about four kilometers. In 1836, American Explorer Nathaniel, hair accidentally discovered in the lake a small stone pyramid with a flat top. He called his discovery Atzalyno and suggested that the discovery not less than a thousand years.

His discovery of Heyer not attach particular importance on the American continent many of the pyramids, “the cult of the hills” and burial mounds. But in 1862, the press began to be published, which said that the pyramid lake Rock is one of the most ancient pyramids.

It was argued that the pyramid is on the bottom of the lake which was formed many years ago, and, therefore, the construction should be over all Indian tribes. Continue reading

The soil pressure on underground structures

Prior to production and to the construction of underground structures soil in an unlimited array is in a state of natural or geostatic equilibrium under the action of its own weight. In this case, the depth Z in the soil (Fig. 1), the following compressive stresses (pressure):

vertical

horizontal

where is the average bulk weight of overlying soils; – the coefficient of lateral earth pressure under conditions of natural occurrence.

The open or underground excavation changes the equilibrium conditions of the soil and leads to the emergence of deformation and redistribution of stresses.

Earth pressure on underground structures is different than the pressure in the intact rock mass at the same depth, as: Continue reading

Mysterious underground tunnels

Mysterious underground tunnels are found on all continents. Experts are convinced that this is a very ancient constructions. But it is still unknown who built and for what purpose.

Moves under the world

Polish researcher Jan Pink argues that system of ancient tunnel covers the entire planet, including the ocean floor. The tunnels seemed to be burned into the surface of the earth. Their walls are hardened melt rocks that look like glass. Modern humanity is similar tunneling technology is unknown.

The oldest tunnels, whose age is estimated at nearly a million years, was found in 1965 by the Argentina ethnologist Juan Moritz. In Ecuador, in the province of Morona-Santiago, his expedition explored and mapped the system of tunnels, mostly rectangular, running at a depth of 230 meters. Their smooth walls seem to be polished. They are ventilation pipes with a diameter of about 70 centimeters. These mysterious underground structures extend for hundreds of kilometers in different directions, including towards the Pacific ocean. Most of them still remain unexplored. Continue reading