Gothic in architecture
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in Europe began the so-called dark ages, during which many barbarian tribes did their Orgy on the remains of the Roman cultural heritage. On the background of endless wars there was a partial revival of Roman architectural tradition, which resulted in a Romanesque architectural style that formed around the X century and transformed in three hundred years Gothic.
Gothic style in architecture emerged in the XII-XIII centuries, with the advent of the high middle ages. On the basis of the Romanesque heritage and the growing power of the Holy see, which was necessary to emphasize appropriate scale Church constructions.
It is worth noting that the Church is so possessed the minds of men in those days that the agents it without much difficulty raised a huge human masses on an adventure, later called the First crusade, which captured Jerusalem and established Christian States in Asia Minor. This, in turn, contributed to the development of pilgrimage, and the pilgrims brought considerable income for the Church, the representatives of which were also enriched in the sale of indulgences, demonstrations of fake relics and just donations. But, despite such dubious methods,which have limited Luteranskiy Cathedral of 1215, first in France and then in other European countries, are built fine cathedrals, marking the advent of a new dawn of European culture and the Gothic, as an architectural direction.
Pioneers in Gothic architecture were members of the Benedictine monks. It was under the arches of the Burgundian Abbey at Cluny they have developed their own type of the Basilica, for the first time embodied in the five-naval Basilica of Cluny, built in 1088. The Basilica had two transept and extended through the crown of chapels of the chancel.
Using the crown of chapels was due to booming at the time, the cult of relics, as mentioned a little earlier. In 1220, the Basilica was expanded from the West was completed trekhmernoi the space, so the Basilica was one of the largest Catholic churches of that time. The third Basilica of Cluny, built on the basis of the first two, became the prototype of the vast majority of large-scale French cathedrals in the Gothic style. But alas — to have survived only by her drawings, and the building was demolished in 1807.
The third Basilica of Cluny (reconstruction)
For the development of the Gothic style in architecture has put much effort into the Abbe Suger, under whose presidency in the first half of the XII century, was rebuilt Basilica of the Abbey of Saint-Denis. This event is considered the starting point of the history of European Gothic.
According to the plan of Suger, light flooding the temple is a symbol of boundless divine light emanating from the Creator. Lighter room Gothic churches, compared with the Romanesque contributed to the revolutionary rejection of the columns in favor of the Gothic frame. Besides that the internal space of the temple was now a single, this technology has allowed to significantly save construction resources and build higher structures. Another distinguishing feature of Gothic is rather strict symmetry, through which the interior of Gothic cathedrals looks very harmonious.
Among the most famous representatives of the Gothic architectural style in France can be called Notre-Dame de Paris and Chartres, Rheims, Laon, Bourges and Amiens cathedrals.
Gothic architecture in England began to emerge at the end of the XII century. It is worth noting that if France had been active in the development of cities, the English city was slow and the Gothic cathedrals were mainly the monastic type. The purest example of the early English period of Gothic architecture is considered to be the Cathedral in Salisbury, and the main Gothic Cathedral in England is considered to be of Canterbury.
Most common French Gothic bears the building of the London Cathedral Westminster Abbey — it is here were crowned and buried the Norman rulers of England starting with William the Conqueror. Among other significant examples of Gothic English architecture it is possible to remember the cathedrals of Durham, York, Winchester, Il and Lincoln.
In Germany the Gothic style came from France, but, over time, developed its own unique features. Of the buildings, the construction of which was started much earlier, were completed with the use of typical Gothic elements of decoration and design, becoming the basis of a kind of Romanesque-Gothic style, which includes Michaelskirche, the chapel of Saint-Bartholomeus, the Cathedral St. Kilian and others.
One of the first buildings with Gothic features exclusively, the experts call the Church of our lady in Trier, the form of which is an equal-armed cross extending only in the altar area. A novelty, not found in France, was situated in each corner of the cross of the two chapels. German Gothic has other differences from the French: more geometrically rigorous shape, entrance from the side of the facade, one or four turrets (two traditionally in France), more stringent external decoration of buildings, etc. The only exception is the Cathedral in Cologne, created in typical French Gothic style.
In Northern Europe, due to shortage of Sandstone and marble, traditionally used for the construction of Gothic cathedrals, arose the so-called brick Gothic. The builders used brick figure, which allowed to create Gothic patterns are not worse than of hewn stone.
Gothic actively developed in Spain, the Netherlands, Czech Republic, Italy — this style everywhere has undergone a number of changes, while maintaining common features. The development of Gothic was interrupted by the black death, mow in the fourteenth century almost a third of Europe’s population. Subsequently, the Gothic received a revival under the name of “flaming Gothic” — it had already traced the features of mannerism.
The Duomo Cathedral in Milan, flamboyant Gothic
Gothic architecture finally disappeared in the early fifteenth century, replaced by the Renaissance architecture, whose masters were inspired by the spiritual and material culture of antiquity.
The Gothic revival in architecture was flames 50-XX years of the XVIII century with the filing of the British aristocracy, followed by the Gothic appealed and on continental Europe. This contributed to the idealization of the middle ages and a rejection of the priorities of antiquity. Neo-Gothic became the national style Victorian Britain. In this period all over Europe was rebuilt and restored an abandoned and unfinished cathedrals, a bright example can serve as already mentioned the Cathedral in Cologne.
In Russia in the heyday of the European Gothic were a more pressing concern than the erection of cathedrals, especially Gothic forms, characteristic of Catholicism, didn’t really fit into the Orthodox tradition. But in the eighteenth century, with the dawn of the Gothic revival in Europe, in the Russian Empire do have their own, unique, Russian pseudo-Gothic style, combining traditional Gothic features, the elements of the Naryshkin Baroque and grotesque. Russian pseudo-Gothic style represented by the House Sevastyanova in Yekaterinburg, St. Catherine Church of ascension convent, Chesma Palace and Church, the Church of the Nativity of John the precursor on the Kamenny island and other.
House Sevastyanova in Yekaterinburg, Russian pseudo-Gothic style
Beautiful examples of classical and neo-Gothic style still inspire and encourage the few pilgrims and many tourists, acting as a symbol of boundless divine light emanating from the Creator.