What is the Cathedral
In the middle ages in all the countries of Western Europe received recognition from the Roman Catholic branch of Christianity. Each rural or urban community built their own Church. Communities United in district, called dioceses. Headed each diocese Bishop.
In the main Church of the diocese in a conspicuous place stood the Episcopal throne, or chair. Translated from Latin to English, this Church was named Cathedral. The British soon began to pronounce only the first part of the phrase “the Cathedral”. In Russian this word is translated as “Cathedral”. Inside European cathedrals resemble the architectural structure of a large cross. The longest part of the “cross” where the believers gather for worship is called the nave.
Both side parts of the cross are called transepts, or cross aisle. The remaining upper part, representing a generally semi-circular part of the building, where the altar and choir, is called the apse. Over the crossing of the longitudinal and transverse parts of this imaginary cross, architects and erecting domes and towers.
The cathedrals were built according to the canons and requirements of almost all architectural styles. But most of the most famous cathedrals in Europe built in the Byzantine, Romanesque, Gothic or Renaissance.
Yet most world-renowned European cathedrals,such as
Notre Dame de Paris, built in the Gothic style which spread in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Strange but true, the largest Gothic Cathedral — the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist — was built in new York at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Moreover, this Church does not belong to the Roman Catholic and Episcopal Church.
Though the Church of St. Peter in Rome and is often called a Cathedral, it is not in the full sense of the word. After all, in the Church of St. Peter is not the chair — the throne of the Bishop. However in itself this building is a magnificent example of architecture of the Renaissance, a masterpiece of this architectural style. The Church was designed by the great Mike-langelo.