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Ancient underground structures

Trench with the help of special equipment: excavators, various kinds of things for tractors; over short distances using manual force;

trenchless technology for laying in horizontal drilling (abbr. HDD);

collector. popolnyaetsya method, shield tunnelling.

The internal piping of buildings is laid:

in struts, technical mines;

in the grooves;

on the walls;

under the baseboards (pipes made of polymeric organic material);

in the floor screed.

Plumbing

Water pipes are:

internal – located inside of buildings and structures,

exterior — laid outside of buildings and structures, usually below ground.

Internal water

Domestic water supply is regulated by SNiP 2.04.01-85 “Internal plumbing and sanitary of buildings” ; gesn 2001-16 the internal Pipelines:

Standpipe;

The metering unit consists of water meters (flowmeter, flow meter) is installed to account for the abstraction of water from the system. Usually ustanavlivaut the basement of an apartment building, or in the technical area of the enterprise;

Pipeline valves: gate valve. crane. valve. non-return valve. compensator

The tank or accumulator

WC

The station fire

Station paging to increase the pressure in the system.

Pipe

Fittings, etc. (incomplete list).

External water supply

External water supply (regulated by SNiP 2.04.02-84 “Water supply. Outdoor networks and structures” ; SNiP 3.05.04-85 External networks and Sewerage. Water supply and Sewerage):

Intake structures — engineering structure for water intake from the source.

Fire hydrant line, fire water supply, fire fighting, water intake fire tankers.

A manhole on the line of the aqueduct.

Pump station to increase pressure in the system water to the desired.

Water treatment — water purification system, bringing water quality up to drinking water quality.

and so forth (a partial list).

Network external water supply system can be divided into several types according to the function:

domestic to pump water of drinking quality.

fireman (or fire) to prevent fires.

production (or process) – used for pumping water for technical purpose: sanitary purposes; cooling units, mechanisms, machinery, various industrial purpose.

irrigation/sprinkler water system for irrigation/watering of agricultural or ornamental plants;

circulating water may also exist to reduce (rationalization) water consumption at the facility.

combined water supply as a way to reduce capital investment in the water supply, for example, often combine fire and utility room.-domestic water supply systems in small settlements, businesses.

The history of plumbing

The amount of water consumed by the person, determines the degree of social development. First water supply facilities – wells and irrigation canals – have appeared in the field of development of ancient civilizations in their flourishing was the condition of that flourishing. Conducted archaeological excavations indicate the existence of wells and irrigation canals in the ancient civilizations of Assyria, Babylon and Egypt.

The history of the Ancient world shows that natural surface and ground water, near which evolved ancient civilization, everywhere, were subject to development and use for agriculture, transportation, fisheries and, of course, for drinking and domestic purposes.

Historically, the water supply system not only called aqueducts or canals for supplying water, but also the entire system of buildings intended for extraction, transportation, processing and distribution of water. Below we will talk about the aqueducts, facilities for water treatment and baths of ancient Rome, and sanitation systems.

The aqueducts of ancient Rome

The most powerful industry in the production of water for drinking and domestic purposes was created in ancient Rome. In the heyday of this city’s population, according to different data, from six hundred thousand to a million people, each of which had up to 1,000 liters of water per day. It should be noted that this figure exceeds the consumption in modern Rome is almost 3 times. The industry of water production included considerable survey work aimed at identifying water sources, tracing of conduits, design of treatment facilities. Researches followed for the construction of water supply, water treatment facilities, distribution facilities for the supply of public and private fountains, baths (baths), baths, special aquariums-cages for the breeding of sea and river fish, as well as the construction of drainage channels.

The construction of the aqueducts in Rome were using public funds, and on funds received in the result of victorious wars. So, water ASO was built in 272 BC on the funds received as a result of the defeat of Pyrrhus, Marziev water in 144 BC on funds received after the capture of Corinth. Money for the operation of water supply systems was formed by several kinds of taxes, related to the sphere of water management. These were taxes on bathhouses and canals.

Aqueducts

Aqueduct

Water pipes, or aqueducts, constructed as follows. Also on a place have found a plentiful source of water and make a depression in the form of a large reservoir, which collects water. From this reservoir water was supplied to public or private (personal) water through the underground pipes or aboveground pipes.

Underground pipes were made of wood, clay or lead (by the way, this is one of the reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire. Lead provocateur of cancer. The Romans, especially the elite, did not live to be 30 years because of cancer). At the intersection of water with solid rock were cut drainage channels; in soft soils, these channels were laid with stone, and over them were built the vaults. At a certain distance from each other holes were made for air, to keep the water clean and fresh.

Above-ground stone water supply systems had the waterproofing of plaster and holes on top for air access. The water pipes run on the walls, wherever the need was the passage, had arches, as for example, part of the aqueduct of Claudius. These arches formed one or more layers, which allowed to build aqueducts over rivers to form bridges and to pave the road for him. The individual parts of the Roman aqueducts and water distribution devices in the form of fountains are still functioning nowadays.

The Roman aqueducts stretched to a length of many kilometers, reaching a height of tens of meters. So, water For novus was the height of almost 40 m; water in France (Nimes) and still the two arches with a height of almost 50 m rises over the surrounding area. It is the same with the remains of aqueducts in Spain.

Facilities for purification of water

Modern treatment facilities

In addition to the conduits, the ancient system of water supply was of particular water bodies-lagoons for water purification and at the end of the conduit special hydraulic device for easy distribution of water to the city. The distribution was carried out using three tanks, one of which was the water intended for public wells and fountains (water cannons), water for baths, and the third for private houses.

Striking in its scope and splendor treatment facilities in the region of Bailly (on the shore of the Gulf of Naples). They occupy vast spaces and vaulted, resting on the columns 48.

Less impressive in size, but more prominent are treatment plants on preserved in Rome the aqueduct of Agrippa.

Aqueducts were built also in August, Caligula and Claudius.

These nine aqueducts delivered water to Rome in the late first century ad providing a daily supply of 5.5 million buckets of clean water. It should be noted also that underground water sources were equipped in a special way over them were erected the various buildings. Many of them have survived to the present time.

Condition of water supply was the concern of a considerable number of officials. Water was one of the most popular and inexpensive goods. The low cost of water consumed and its huge volumes have resulted in significant financial revenues to the state Treasury.

Huge amount of used water required drainage. In drainage ditches water was diverted into the Tiber, Over time discharge the channels have been fenced and in the II century BC the main outlet channel  was covered with a vault.

Diversion of water also significantly replenished the state Treasury. It was in ancient Rome under Emperor Vespasian introduced a tax on toilets, and from that moment became known sacramental phrase “money does not smell”. Inspection of drainage channels occupied the Emperor all day, and this indicates a significant size drainage management and economic interest in its development. By the end of the III century BC the number of aqueducts in Rome reached.