Architecture of Ancient China.
The architectural structures of Ancient China both in terms of appearance and building design differ significantly from those of classical architectural monuments of the West. One of the differences is that in ancient Chinese buildings is dominated by a wooden construction, while the architectural monuments of the West is dominated by brick and stone.
Even in the construction of stone and brick structures — Buddhist pagodas, palaces and burial crypts in Ancient China strived to give them the appearance of traditional wooden structures. Chinese buildings have as a reference not wall design and construction, built of posts and beams. “Fanza survives, even if the walls fall” — say in China. Having a supporting skeleton, can be the wish to vary the design of external walls and internal partitions.
In the North, where the cold climate, made the exterior walls durable, able to protect from the cold. In the South, where the climate is warm and moist, thin walls made of wooden planks or bamboo, and sometimes the exterior walls as such did not exist, they were replaced with rows of Windows and doors. While devices like the gazebos and galleries generally left blank the openings between the pillars. This technique of construction “meets the needs of the construction aerogenerator purpose: palaces, pavilions, galleries, etc.
The wooden structure without walls, the halls, pavilions and galleries.
Wish the interior could be razgorodit on a separate “room” with light walls and screens. Aside from the convenience variations of the wooden building had a number of benefits in construction and earthquake resistance, however, their disadvantage was the inability to resist fire and rot, and strength, they are inferior to a stone-and-brick structures. So not so many ancient architectural monuments preserved to our days.
Another distinctive feature of ancient Chinese architecture was ensemble-group principle. Build not one building but a whole complex of constructions, whether a Palace, a monastery or shelter. So if to say about a few buildings, in ancient China they, as a rule, inferior in size and grandeur of the Western architectural monuments. The magnitude was achieved in China’s construction of large building complexes.
In the Park the summer Palace Beijing (Beijing).
And built so that individual structures of the ensemble was impossible to observe entirely from outside of the complex. The exceptions were mandatory for each city wall and Drum tower towering over the city. Therefore, getting acquainted with ancient Chinese architecture, you should study the features of the building complex as a whole.
Planning the construction of the future complex, Chinese architects strictly followed the principle of symmetry: the structures were located symmetrically with respect to the Central axis, and the middle left space for a courtyard. On this principle was built up the entire city. Along the Central axis of symmetry was located the most important building complex, only parks and green areas were located at ease.
In places with difficult terrain, such as mountains, buildings disposed in relation to the environment, but there are respected ensemble-group principle. Chinese architects took care that the whole building and its parts-the brackets, the ridge of the roof, etc. were artistically decorated. Because tile roofs resting on wooden floors, distinguished by bulky, to give it more grace she was given a curved shape, the corners of the roof lifts up, so that created a soaring effect, the ridge of the roof were decorated with animal figures, at the ends of the shingles were painted ornament in the form of flowers, animals, etc.
For protection from damage protruding parts of wooden structures covered with lacquer — gradually there was a specifically Chinese style of decoration of buildings. The purpose of the architectural structures was divided into the Palace, mausoleum and funeral, ceremonial, sacrificial, architectural Park and residential.