The megalithic monuments of antiquity who built it?
“The first mortars having binding properties appeared before our era.
Historians and researchers say that in the epoch of metals (3200-1500 BC) lime mortar was used in construction. And in 100 BC the Romans used a cement made with lime and stone aggregates.
A quarter century ago, the world has heard speculation the Swiss Professor-the chemist Joseph Davidovich about the artificial production of blocks of which is composed of the pyramid of Cheops. Examining limestone blocks, he in the stone mass of one of them found a human hair. Inside the stone hair could be only in one case: if during mixing of the solution it dropped into the mixture with the head worker.
The hypothesis of Davidovica removes many otherwise unsolvable contradictions. In particular, if was to cast blocks of concrete, at the construction site could be just one and a half thousand workers, not tens of thousands.
The most determined opponent of Davidovica was an Italian Egyptologist Sergio Donadoni. He recalled the many found on the limestone blocks of the pyramid special marks or the proprietary marks of their respective manufacturer, or icons that are technologically necessary in order to facilitate unladkabayan. This marking is justified only if it leave the stonecutters. If the blocks are cast of concrete, the stigma would lose all meaning. But Davidowitz didn’t give up. The result of his further search was the inscription on the stele of the third dynasty. Deciphered hieroglyphs contained a recipe for making ancient concrete. Swiss Professor has identified 13 components of the ancient Egyptian recipe, patented a “new old” concrete and started its commercial production.
Russian traveler Vitaly Sundakov considers that limestone dust and sand, moistened with water, could form a solid mass. Head of the laboratory of chemical admixtures and modified concrete NIIZHB, honored scientist of Russia, doctor of technical Sciences, Professor Hinds commented on this situation as follows: in structures of the ancient world were to be found soil, clay, limestone, and binder was often of the so-called quicklime — lime is not waterproof. But in Italy found the silica, in appearance resembling sand, but more loose, so he just gives lime water. In the opinion of Professor Batrakova, it cannot be excluded that the composition of the Sandstone — the stone that built the pyramids, individuals from lime, and from the floodplain of the Nile brought the soft sand. This mixture could be the basis for the equivalent of concrete.
In 1881 classic of Egyptology sir William Flinders Petrie investigated a facing plate, previously covered the verge of the great pyramids. Then at the foot of the great pyramid was still quite a lot of these plates dropped from a height by the earthquake of 1301, the Scientist found that the gaps between the slabs with a width of only half a millimetre filled with cement. That is, material, which, according to the existing history of technology in Ancient Egypt simply could not be: cement was invented only in XIX century.
The assumption of the Professor about Batrakova gipsobetonnyh mixtures are unstable to water, also found support in the practice of Egyptology. In principle, the application of the Egyptians gipsobetonnyh mixtures indicated in his works well-known material scientist Vladimir Jung: in the composition of the stone blocks of the Khafre pyramid, the Sphinx and the tombs of the Sahur he noted the presence of lime, sulphuric anhydride, and carbon dioxide.
Vitaly Sundakov argues that higher fifty meters in the side surfaces of limestone blocks preserved imprints of reed mats. When fitting the mats on the wooden frame was obtained form panel. According Sundukova, the ancient Egyptians prepared the concrete thus: limestone was ground to a powder (no wonder during the excavations in the craftsmen camp found the millstones, which, as shown, and used for grinding stone). Then, in the binder used river mud. “