The earliest period of the history of Azerbaijan
In the Azerbaijan SSR monuments of Khojaly-Gadabay culture are and foothill belts of the lesser Caucasus and in the valley on the right Bank of the river Kura; traces of it are found in the Mughan steppe and in the region of the Talysh mountains.
Typical monuments of Khojaly-Gadabay culture are cyclopean buildings whose walls are of large boulders of stones on the dry clutch. Cyclopean structures identified so far in Khanlar, Tastaturkart, Shamkhor and Dashkesan regions. Their presence is expected in Kubatly, Tauz and the Kazakh regions. In the Nakhichevan ASSR they are recorded in Norashen district. One of them is “Opencola” (“Castle men”) – differs from all other cyclopean structures the fact that its walls were built of stones ruboobeeyah almost quadrangular shape. Azerbaijanis foothill and mountainous parts (the lesser Caucasus, where the bulk of these monuments, called them mostly “Kalach” (small fortress), and sometimes referred to as “Arucas” (masonry), “?Asar” (fence) and “d?W?ldas” (stone rows). The number of identified cyclopean structures within a Republic comes to 120.
For Khojaly-Gadabay culture also include: remains of ancient settlements, located near the cyclopean structures; graves, such as stone boxes, vstroennyy large plates, often in the region of the cyclopean buildings); earthen mounds of various sizes and heights; the mounds of river boulders; the cromlechs and menhirs are located close to these monuments.
The grave inventory of the stone boxes, barrows and cromlechs consists mainly of clay vessels in black and dark gray colors, a large quantity of bronze articles, cornelian and paste beads, flint and obsidian arrowheads. Pottery is made primarily on a Potter’s wheel, and the more ancient of them are made in a primitive way without the use of which is sometimes filled with a white paste. In some cases, on the body of the vessels depicted the human figure, animals, scenes of hunting for wild goats, and also separate marks that indicate the importance of the cult of the sun in everyday life of Azerbaijani people. Bronze products have a variety of weapons – swords, daggers, knives, axes, spearheads and arrows, and artistic decorations. The grave inventory of large and small cattle, horses and pigs.
For detailed acquaintance with all the objects of a given culture the most suitable areas are Khojaly barrow field, located between the cities of Aghdam and Stepanakert, at the confluence of mountain rivers Hojaliy and Karkari, the surroundings mountains. Hanlar, Hezbolah Tastaturkart in the area, the village of Gadabay and C. Kalakand in Gadabay district.
Monuments of the Nakhichevan culture. The second archaeological culture is the so-called Nakhichevan. It is spread almost on the whole territory of the Nakhichevan ASSR. This culture closely ties associated with the culture of Asia minor, Elam, Assyria and the Medes. The results of archaeological study of the Nakhichevan culture still came down to the conclusion that it existed simultaneously with the Khojali-Gadabay culture, almost from the beginning of the II Millennium to the middle of the first Millennium BC.
Painting of products, geometric pattern, red and black vessels with a spout, like a kettle – these are the distinctive features of ceramics of the Nakhchivan culture. The ornaments decorating the upper part of the body of pottery, are geometrical in nature. The receptacles dark grey and black they are made with incised lines, and vessels of red and reddish-yellow colors – red and black lines. The grid is made up of red and black straight lines, bordered by geometric shapes, mainly triangles and quadrilaterals. Images of humans, animals and birds are rare and then only for vessels of red and reddish yellow flowers. On one krasnoglazaya painted jug from S. shahtakhti presents a scene of hunting wild animals, painted in black and red paint. On some vessels dark gray color belonging to the bronze age, there is an image of the sun carved on the bottom on the outside, indicating the presence of the sun cult in Azerbaijan in the distant past. Such images of the sun in everyday life of Azerbaijanis existed until the last centuries and played on tomb stones and architectural objects.