Prior to production and to the construction of underground structures soil in an unlimited array is in a state of natural or geostatic equilibrium under the action of its own weight. In this case, the depth Z in the soil (Fig. 1), the following compressive stresses (pressure):
where is the average bulk weight of overlying soils; – the coefficient of lateral earth pressure under conditions of natural occurrence.
The open or underground excavation changes the equilibrium conditions of the soil and leads to the emergence of deformation and redistribution of stresses.
Earth pressure on underground structures is different than the pressure in the intact rock mass at the same depth, as: Continue reading
Gothic (from the name of the Germanic tribe is ready) style (1150-1500) is represented in various art forms. But it is most fully manifested in the architecture: One of the highest achievements of the Gothic style — the Gothic cathedrals. Powerful columns crowned with pointed arches, huge Windows with colored glass, conical spires of Gothic cathedrals give ease. The building always looks tall and seems even taller.
The exterior is decorated with sculptures, a huge number of columns, which create the impression of lightness and at the same time give the building the necessary strength. The lack of smooth walls especially when compared with buildings of the Romanesque style.
The portal (entrance) to the Cathedral are always decorated with numerous arches, sculptures, turrets, small Windows curly. Smooth walls a little, usually they cut large Windows-sockets. The faces and postures of the figures emphasized realistic, even the folds of the clothes are not frozen, but soft, movable. Continue reading
In the Azerbaijan SSR monuments of Khojaly-Gadabay culture are and foothill belts of the lesser Caucasus and in the valley on the right Bank of the river Kura; traces of it are found in the Mughan steppe and in the region of the Talysh mountains.
Typical monuments of Khojaly-Gadabay culture are cyclopean buildings whose walls are of large boulders of stones on the dry clutch. Cyclopean structures identified so far in Khanlar, Tastaturkart, Shamkhor and Dashkesan regions. Their presence is expected in Kubatly, Tauz and the Kazakh regions. In the Nakhichevan ASSR they are recorded in Norashen district. One of them is “Opencola” (“Castle men”) – differs from all other cyclopean structures the fact that its walls were built of stones ruboobeeyah almost quadrangular shape. Azerbaijanis foothill and mountainous parts (the lesser Caucasus, where the bulk of these monuments, called them mostly “Kalach” (small fortress), and sometimes referred to as “Arucas” (masonry), “?Asar” (fence) and “d?W?ldas” (stone rows). The number of identified cyclopean structures within a Republic comes to 120. Continue reading