Gothic. Birth and masterpieces (Gothic style)
Gothic style that has become a hallmark of the middle Ages. She was not the only style of the era just past. It is embellished with fantastic lace thread stone…

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The most mysterious manuscript in the world.
A breakthrough in the attempt to decipher a mysterious 600-year-old Voynich manuscript, written in an unknown language. The Voynich manuscript, considered to be the most mysterious document in the world,…

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building

The Cathedral (Duomo)

The Duomo Cathedral of Milan, bearing the name of Santa Maria Nascente. This Gothic Church was built for nearly six centuries, and today is the fifth largest Cathedral in the world and the largest in Italy. The Duomo is located on the place where once was the center of the Roman Mediolanum, – this is confirmed by the fact that modern streets either radiate from the Cathedral or surround it. Under the building of the Duomo you can see the early Christian baptistery, built in 335, the year, is one of the oldest Christian baptistery in Europe.

In 1386, the year Archbishop Antonio da Saluzzo began construction of the Cathedral, which coincided with the coming to power in Milan of Gian Galeazzo Visconti. The first architect was appointed Simone da Orsenigo, which planned to build the Cathedral in Lombard Gothic style. However, Visconti wanted to follow the fashion trends of European architecture, and therefore invited the French engineer Nicolas de Bonaventure, who added the style “rayonnant Gothic” – French style, not common in Italy. He also decided that the brick structure should be marble. In 1402, the year Jan, Galeazzo died – by this time the Cathedral was only half completed, and construction was frozen nearly to the end of the century. Continue reading

The great structures

This publication is dedicated to the Great constructions of the USSR and Russia, those buildings are one of its existences prove the power and might of our own country want to meet. THE GREAT STRUCTURES

At the bottom of each building is a link to all the pictures in the archive!

Well it because we all live in Primorye we should all know about Voroshilov Battery on Russky island that is why she is entrusted with a great honor to open a Hit Parade of GREAT FACILITIES

Voroshilov battery on the island of Russian

In the reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in 1997 battery, as a combat unit was disbanded, and on its basis was established branch of the Military historical Museum of Pacific fleet “Voroshilov battery”.

In the spring of 1931 it was decided — to strengthen the defences of Vladivostok. The Commission headed by the people’s Commissar of defense K. Voroshilov chose for the new “springboard” island height near the Eastern corner of the Bay Novik. Continue reading

The soil pressure on underground structures

Prior to production and to the construction of underground structures soil in an unlimited array is in a state of natural or geostatic equilibrium under the action of its own weight. In this case, the depth Z in the soil (Fig. 1), the following compressive stresses (pressure):

vertical

horizontal

where is the average bulk weight of overlying soils; – the coefficient of lateral earth pressure under conditions of natural occurrence.

The open or underground excavation changes the equilibrium conditions of the soil and leads to the emergence of deformation and redistribution of stresses.

Earth pressure on underground structures is different than the pressure in the intact rock mass at the same depth, as: Continue reading